Contingency Theory Questions

But in the case of bivariate analysis (comparing two variables) correlation comes into play. The managerial decision making is associated with that and in case of a commercial organization, the process if expositing the ethics in management as well as in business is the right form of. Contingency question - A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question. Rather than hoping that everything will turn out OK or that "fate will be on your side", a planner should try to identify contingency events and be prepared with plans, strategies and approaches for avoiding, coping or even exploiting them. Situational favourableness, determined by three factors: 1. WHAT IS THE THEORY BEHIND CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT? The overarching goal of CM is to consistently act in effective ways (i. 42) According to the contingency theory of leadership, the extent to which the leader has control over the rewards and punishments received by followers is known as _____. My thanks are due to the audience at the Swedish summerschool for. Get into a routine - Mindless routines may curb your creativity, but when used properly, they can release time and energy. Nicola, 3 36100 Vicenza, Italy Tel +39 0444 998703 – Fax +39 0444 998884 E-mail: pamela. The label "germ theory denialism" is often applied to systems of alternative medicine which claim that if a person is in optimal/perfect health then that person's immune system will be 100% effective at fending off all infections, and thus 1) anyone following said system has no need of vaccines, and/or 2) anyone who has a bacterial infection. It only takes a minute to sign up. Contingency Theory is a unique approach to leadership. This exemplifies that as part of contingency planning, one needs to chart out varied responses (or a combination of several responses), as shown in Figure 1: e. Projects and operational functions commonly run into unexpected expenses. logic, and it is the logical basis for most of the theory of modern mathematics, at least as it has developed in western culture. Three-term Contingency The three-term contingency - also referred to as the ABCs of behavior (antecedent-behavior-consequence) illustrates how behavior is elicited by the environment and how the consequences of behavior can affect its future occurrence. One approach to organizational behavior is the contingency approach. The group can be cohesive and supportive to the leader or divided and unsupportive. Three basic factors are presented by Fiedler, which. Structural contingency theory argues that the most effective structure for an organization is contingent (i. Use this step-by-step guide to get your plan sorted. Rather than adapting to situations, the contingency leader adapts least favored-worker concept to draw the disinterested or less skilled worker into the environment. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. Contingency management (CM) is a type of behavior therapy often used in addiction treatment programs (Tuten, Jones, Schaeffer & Stitzer, 2011). Contingency Approach to Management - Recognition, Contributions and Limitations In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. Sony Read and reflect on the case study about Sony on page 119 of the course textbook. Synonym Discussion of contingency. But due to the mismanagement of the situation BP was thrust into the spotlight as the figurehead of bad environmental decisions with even worse solutions. The contingency theory of leadership was one of the first situational leadership theories. Contingency theories in general state that the effectiveness of leadership depends upon the situation, and there are numerous factors, such as the nature of the task, leader's personality, and make-up of the group being led. Another important contengency theory to note is Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model of leadership they have elaborated an amazing decision model where you answer a series of questions with regards to a particular questions and the model will suggest a leadership style that would provide you with the best response. There are three main types of questions that a researcher can ask when writing a quantitative study. However, due to the large variances that exist in organisations across industries and cultures, much greater empirical evidence will need to be produced, with inconsistencies and ambiguities removed, before HRM scholars will unanimously agree as to one theory that constitutes SHRM. The Theory of Industrial Organization is the first primary text to treat the new industrial organization at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate level. According to this theory, leadership style is quite inflexible. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. A major goal of any academic pursuit is the development of an overall theory. A contingency plan is a plan to recover from a risk should it occur. According to the theory, a leader's style is measured by a scale called Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale. Douglas Skelley 8. Fiedler's contingency theory is a qualification or type of contingency theory. Trait Theory: Strengths, Weaknesses, & Theorists. [Objective 5. Three basic factors are presented by Fiedler, which. Fiedler believed that leaders were incapable of changing their style of leadership to adapt to the situation. In the past, most researchers believed in a "one best way" or universal approach to leadership. In fact it is only when we get to the contingency theories that authors of the new approaches appear to be willing to acknowledge that many different approaches and ways of thinking have value, but that. Unfortunately there was minimal trust between my manager and the three team members below him due to the fact that he was constantly absent and unavailable. com I'd be delighted to receive your emails. How to use contention in a sentence. theory is affected by classical theorists' idea in scientific management, bureaucracy and official management field. The structure shifts from a typical focus on the leader and to a focus on the matching of a leader…. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. ) are on the same page in terms of guidance for development of the OCO. Chapter 1: Nursing Leadership and Management MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Fiedler's theory proposes that a leader's effectiveness hinges on how well his or her leadership style matches the current context and task. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. bst2012/dollar photo club. The contingency approach also applies to a manager's personality, such as coach-and-mentor, which affects his leadership style and ability to motivate employees. An organizational / leadership / decision making style that is effective in some situations, may be not successful in other situations. If this is the way my situation is, then this is the best way for me to manage. Y1 - 2005/3/1. Downloadable! This paper aims to answer the question: 1. Some of the most popular management theories that are applied nowadays are systems theory, contingency theory, Theory X and Theory Y, and the scientific management theory. Contingency theory suggests that numerous factors or situations affect leadership, many of which cannot be anticipated or completely controlled (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2012, p. This style of leadership deals with finding the best match between a leader and a situation. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Request support. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Please share how this access benefits you. On the flip side, a disadvantage would be no plan for unanticipated problems. Fiedler's approach departs from trait and behavioral models by asserting that group performance is contingent on the leader's psychological orientation and on three contextual variables: group atmosphere, task structure, and leader's power position. State and explain the "system approach" and "contingency approach" of management as the integrating approach of managing an organization. During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. Joan Woodward was a pioneer in organization theory, and in this episode we explore her seminal work Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice, originally published in 1965. transformational leadership _____ can be defined as leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the. Preparing for unexpected and unwelcome events. 1] Define organic and mechanistic structure, and discuss the pros and cons of each. Management Question 1 This question requires narrating a situation in which a leader's style of leadership is criticized according to the model provided by Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. One of the very first contingency theories was proposed by Fred. It states that organizations and even the units within the same organization are diverse –in size, goals, work activities, etc. Second, contingency theory has broadened our understanding of leadership by forcing us to consider the impact of situations on leaders. For instance, this applies to empirical research that depicts the participative styles of leaders. Contingency Theory Name: Institution: Contingency Theory Introduction (2pges) According to Carroll and Burton (2012), organization management is the practice under which an organization employs measures to ensure there is an effective and efficient structure that controls its operation. We can connect this to the “order from noise principle” of general systems theory. Question: Discuss about the Contingency Theory of Incentive Alignment. This theory works to identify the commonly recurring situations and making observations on how different strategies and structures and behavioral processes function in all. theory is summarized. 3 Contingency Theories. Intelligence in a Turbulent World: Insights from organization theory Glenn Hastedt and B. Contingency theorists argue that types of learning exist that are not explained by operant and classical conditioning. actions consistent with the situation is central to the contingency approach. The contingency theory of management is one of the most important topics that you will study in your management degree. That may change as social distancing measures postpone live hearings, but so far so good. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. A) leader-member relations. ), 20th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1-3 September 2004, Heriot Watt University. When Cousins Feud: Advancing Threat Appraisal and Contingency Theory in Situations That Question the Essential Identity of Activist Organizations This article reports on an experiment that applied the concepts of avowed and ascribed identities to situations where similar activist organizations clash. Contingency Theory related to Toyota Paper instructions: Need to write up about the contingency theory and relate it to Toyota. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Its main tenants claims that no right or wrong method exists for running a larger business, specifically a multi-department corporation. In order to make this theory effective, it is important to find what style a leader has. Questions that are limited to a subset of respondents for whom they are relevant are called "contingency questions. The contingency theory of leadership supposes that a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on whether or not their leadership style suits a particular situation. in short, contingency is concerned with. Popularized by movies such as "A Beautiful Mind," game theory is the mathematical modeling of strategic interaction among rational (and irrational) agents. However, real estate is generally shown as "pending" in the real estate listing, rather than as having a contingency, if the buyer's only contingency clause is a financing contingency, an. BP was an organization that wasn’t in the spotlight as far as social environmental causes before the oil spill that happened on April 20 th 2009. Causal questions are exactly what they sound like – a question that tries to compare two or more phenomena and determine (or at least suggest) a. Paper presented in a Symposium entitled Toward a Theory of Classroom Assessment as the Regulation of Learning at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Philadelphia, PA, April 2014. How does the leader's style fit the context of the. This is a realistic theory that provides administrators with the knowledge to expect the unexpected. Contingency approach 1. What Is Contingency Management? Contingency management (CM), often called motivational incentives, is a type of behavioral therapy rooted in the basis of operant conditioning. Contingency TheoryUnderstanding the ModelLeadership StylesSituational VariablesStrengths and CriticismsApplication 4. There are a number of different sub-theories that fall under the general contingency umbrella. But this is your home and earnest money on the line so be your own backup. Political Contingency addresses these and other related questions, providing theoretical and historical perspectives on the topic, empirical case studies, and the methodological challenges that the fact of contingency poses for the study of politics. The outline of this chapter is as follows: challenges to the. Situational Leadership Theory takes the maturity level of followers into account. Contingency theory is based on the assumption that no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. Conference on open questions in cryptography and number theory. Kotter - managing change. It was argued that the account underplayed the character of the organisation as a political system and, in consequence, failed to treat the political character of the relationship between the consultant and members of the organisation. Contingency management (CM) is a type of behavior therapy often used in addiction treatment programs (Tuten, Jones, Schaeffer & Stitzer, 2011). Contingency theory has been applied in management accounting research in order to address three types of questions. Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: a review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Step 1: Understanding what the Table is Telling you: The following Contingency Table shows the number of Females and Males who each have a given eye color. Model strategic thinking for staff: 1. The study notes have been rewritten to reflect the latest changes in the PMBOK® Guide for the new PMP® Exam. The remit of this paper is, by way of Kracauer's Theory of Film, to examine contingency as a historical category, and a conceptual term that prises open. Management Question 1 This question requires narrating a situation in which a leader's style of leadership is criticized according to the model provided by Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. explore these questions: Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey’s Situational leadership theory, and Fred Fiedler’s Contingency theory. It is basically a tally of counts between two or more categorical variables. contingency theory to advance the knowledge on how different organizations should adapt their organizational structure to changes in the environment and other contingencies through a dynamic organizational fit model. Trait Theory, one of the first systemic approaches to study leadership, attempts to discover what innate qualities make a superior leader. I believe the BP Oil Spill is a great example of the Contingency Theory at work. Fiedler's model claims that group performance depends on the interaction of the leader style and the favorableness of the situation. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. Contingency Theory related to Toyota Paper instructions: Need to write up about the contingency theory and relate it to Toyota. Situational Leadership Theory takes the maturity level of followers into account. We published the (unchanged list of) theories online for 15 years, until 2019. Which of the following statements describes Fiedler's contingency theory? asked Aug 22, 2017 in Business by Yetis A) Leaders can influence followers in highly unfavorable situations. In: Khosrowshahi, F (Ed. what subject this refers to) as there are few possible answers/explanations. Discuss Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. Management Question 1 This question requires narrating a situation in which a leader's style of leadership is criticized according to the model provided by Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. Stevens also was an authority on the physics of sensory perception, especially hearing. Contingency Planning refers to interim measures to recover IT services following an emergency or system disruption. [Page 143] screening examination. Three basic factors are presented by Fiedler, which. Introduction 1 Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon that has seen much publicity in recent years, from for instance publicity in media and the amount of events and. While all similar on the surface, they each offer their own distinct views on leadership. Definition of contingency: An event that may or may not occur. This theory works to identify the commonly recurring situations and making observations on how different strategies and structures and behavioral processes function in all. Fiedler's contingency theory. Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory. The basic idea of this approach is that number management technique or theory is appropriate in all situations. In the 1960s, Fred Fiedler carried out research on the relationship (contingency) between the effectiveness of the leadership style. Many ask the question, are leaders born leaders or do they have to go through a set of skills and tests to be given that. These factors include the size of the organization, technology that is in use, leadership style, and how the organization can adapt to changes in strategy. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right. Contingency theory is often called the "it all depends" theory, because when a contingency theorist is being asked for an answer, the typical response will be that it all depends. A contingency fee agreement is a payment arrangement that allows a plaintiff who has been injured and is seeking legal remedy to obtain legal representation even if they do not have money to pay a lawyer at the beginning of the case. The first, usually called the classical school of. Richard, and Ruth Wageman. What is the most appropriate response in one situation may not work in another. The website is offline now, but due to a lot of interest in this list of theories we keep the original 2003/2004 collection. Question: Discuss about the Case Study of B. Behavioral Management Theory As management research continued in the 20th century, questions began to come up regarding the interactions and motivations of the individual within organizations. R Richardson. In a contingent fee arrangement, the lawyer agrees to accept. Contingency theory notes that leaders need to adjust their style of leadership to the unique cultural aspects of the country that they are in. The advocates of situational theories believe that leadership. Read Critical Thinking On Contingency Theory and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. All I need is help with my question. These influences include motivating subordinates, budgeting scarce resources, and serving as a source of communication. Contingency Theory is one of several leadership theories that takes the leadership style and situation under consideration (Northouse, 2007). I want to reconfirm my answer. According to this theory natonal culture affects leadership style by way of the follower. The Swimwear Department At Roobeezy, A Discount Clothing Store, Is A Mess. This model suggests the selection of a leadership style of groups decision-making. His contingency model contained the relationship between leadership style (human relations or task-direct) as measured by the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale, and the favorableness of the situation (leader-member relations, degree of task structure, and position power). • There will be no multiple class payouts at the same event for the same machine. Although these management theories were developed ages ago, they help in creating interconnected work environments where employees and employers work hand-in-hand. So let's just make a null hypothesis. Many ask the question, are leaders born leaders or do they have to go through a set of skills and tests to be given that. Contingency Management (CM) Contingency Management is often called motivational incentives, the prize method, or the carrot and stick method. I am grateful to James Scouller, an expert coach, thinker, and writer on leadership, for the contribution of most of the technical content on this article, and for the collaboration in editing it and. Explain the functioning or the working of the Contingency Theory given by Fiedler? Answer: The 'Contingency theory' does not suggest a leader adapt to a situation, rather the goal should match the leader's style. Organizational Development Theory. A core concept in contingency theory is fit. Relationships, power and task structure are the three key factors that drive effective styles. It states that organizations and even the units within the same organization are diverse –in size, goals, work activities, etc. Use the multiple choice questions to reaffirm and test what you have learnt from the book. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. Contingency theory suggests that numerous factors or situations affect leadership, many of which cannot be anticipated or completely controlled (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2012, p. T1 - Information technology (IT) appropriateness. Contingency is a potential negative event which may occur in the future such as a natural disaster, fraudulent activity or a terrorist attack. Systems theory. Leadership. (NASDAQ:CLMT) Q1 2020 Results Earnings Conference Call May 07, 2020, 10:00 am ET Company Participants Joseph Caminiti. Contingency managers give attention to both the situation and their own styles of management and ensure that both of them interact appropriately. Choosing a Leadership Style. He seems more likely to succeed in the position. intrinsic motivation. C) task structure. Because this approach encourages managers make the decision and design the structure according to different contingencies. Thesefundamentallaws are "universal" anddescribe manydifferent types ofsystems. Campus lunch spots. According to this theory, leadership style is quite inflexible. Contingency question - A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question. Hi I am looking for some advice and best practices for the contingency plan of our Fibre Link data connection between Offices and the Warehouse which is approximately 100 metres away over a river but technically still on the same site. Follower LEARNING OBJECTIVES. A natural disaster plan could be drafted to address a broad range of potential threats, and should consider:. This style of leadership deals with finding the best match between a leader and a situation. B) position power. In Foundations for Organizational Science: The contingency theory of organizations (pp. Is leadership culture-bound. "Although he recognized the need to define the question at issue in a trial, Aristotle did not develop a theory to cover the various possibilities, nor did he use the term stasis. Due to globalisation, boundaries became weaker, and organizations became larger. Contingency theory has passed the test of research. – Test Bank Chapter 6 Motivation Test Bank Multiple Choice (25) Which of the following is not considered a process theory of motivation? Expectancy theory Equity theory Procedural justice theory *d. Classical leadership. Question 1: As a leader, the Fiedler contingency theory could be used to manage employees by placing the most suitable leader with his or her given style for the specific situation. part of contingency planning, one needs to chart out varied responses (or a combination of several responses), as shown in Figure 1: e. The need to develop the social sciences to make a practical contribution to organisational problems is a theme we hear much about. Group Presentation 2. Where the structure fits the contingencies, then high performance results, whereas, where the structure misfits. Contingency Theory related to Toyota Paper instructions: Need to write up about the contingency theory and relate it to Toyota. Discuss Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. Projects and operational functions commonly run into unexpected expenses. Postmodernism is the philosophical proposal that reality is ultimately inaccessible by human investigation, that knowledge is a social construction, that truth. Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. The Contingency approach is a management theory that helps the manager to adopt the best management style is dependent on the context of the situation. Modern Organization Theory - Contingency Theory In the study of the Modern Organizational Theory, we talk about Simple Theory as well as Contingency Theory. Contingency Theory Contingency theory is a framework for examining leadership. Whilst it is hoped most practitioners will find this an easy-to-use format, this is not the only way to go about contingency planning. Contingency theory provides a lens and perspective to predict and analyze leadership based on the constructs of leadership style and the context of the situation. General factors that can. Based on your research, understanding of the Fiedler's Contingency Theory, and the above scenario, create a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document to address the following questions: What is Fiedler's Contingency Theory?. ' 'This hypothesis is also consistent with evidence that suggests that individuals use their knowledge to guide the selection of events to be used in the computation of contingency. The key statement of the contingency school is “it depends. Contingency theory. In the situational leadership model II, the […]. 2 Transformation versus Servant Leadership - Stone the perception that the concepts are rather similar. Follower LEARNING OBJECTIVES. The following are the five basic steps of contingency planning for epidemic, pandemic, or other emergency situations. One approach to organizational behavior is the contingency approach. o This is a leader-match theory which tries to match the right leader for the situation. Under his model, Fielder says leaders must determine how to best use their management style in a given situation for the most effective results. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Contingency Theory Case Study 6. Today, the contingency approach dominates theory and research in the management literature. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, a successful leadership style depends on. Both theories are based on a distinction between relationship and task motivations of the leader in determining one’s style and emphasize the importance of matching the leader’s style to the follower and the. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation. Rather, the best structure depends on or is contingent upon a variety of different contextual factors or contingencies that you need to account for when making designed choices. E) motivational structure. , 1985; Strube & Garcia, 1981; Vecchio, 1983). Model strategic thinking for staff: 1. Choosing a Leadership Style. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. organisations. It reconstructs a trajectory of thought from an Organic condition of thinking elaborated by Kant, passing by the philosophy of nature (Schelling and Hegel), to the 20th. One may want to consider, for instance, how classical contingency arguments hold under more dynamic conditions that characterize contemporary organizations. By exerting this control, a company ensures that its employees remain focused on their existing roles until it's necessary to adapt to the circumstances. Tamara Popovich’s was elected president over a council in which she had no control. Note that, for example, the table show that 20 Females have Black eyes and that 10 Males have Gray eyes. Contingency and situational theory could give school leaders the opportunity for a solid basis in further refining management policies and practices. It is basically a tally of counts between two or more categorical variables. Contingency theory is a behavioural theory of based on being no best way to lead an organization. Asking the right questions about leadership: Discussion and conclusions. (NASDAQ:CLMT) Q1 2020 Results Earnings Conference Call May 07, 2020, 10:00 am ET Company Participants Joseph Caminiti. The Swimwear Department At Roobeezy, A Discount Clothing Store, Is A Mess. In particular, he told us about Thomas Carlyle’s Great Man Theory of History. T1 - Information technology (IT) appropriateness. -> Contemporary management approaches represent major innovations in ways of thinking about management and appropriate management practices. This resource is ideal for exam revision, and also useful when trying to apply the lessons within the text. Effective organizations must tailor their planning, organizing, leading, and controlling to their particular circumstances. In this regard, hypothesis from different studies is connected to this approach. leader member relations. Describe the components of the contingency theory of leadership as it applies to the work environment you selected. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Vol. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Systems theory. More information on my PMP® certification exam preparation can be found at my PMP® exam and certification journey (with free PMP. -> Contemporary management approaches represent major innovations in ways of thinking about management and appropriate management practices. The question here is if this collapse of ontological modes into one flattened ontology hinges on the conflation of the understanding of contingent into that of Absolute Contingency developed by Quentin Meillassoux in his book "After Finitude", that kickstarted the Speculative Realism movement of which DeLanda is kind of a part of. The report. In the past, most researchers believed in a "one best way" or universal approach to leadership. Keywords Business strategy Contingency theory Corporate governance Earnings quality Performance management Structural equation modeling. Fiedler in the 1960s. In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers. Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Contingency theory. Contingency Theory related to Toyota Paper instructions: Need to write up about the contingency theory and relate it to Toyota. Contingency, an amount of funds added to the base cost estimate to cover estimate uncertainty and risk exposure, is a topic of interest for both project managers and sponsors alike. Chapter 1: Nursing Leadership and Management MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What is the contingency theory? Specific situational factors that can affect the direct relationships between statistical variables in the study of organizational behavior. C) task structure. 182-183 as a guide to complete Appendix D, basing your answers on a real or hypothetical work environment. These particular 'situational' or 'contingency' models offer a framework or guide for being flexible and adaptable when leading. Click again to collapse. Contingency approach helps to understand that management activity such as planning, controlling, leadership, or organization are completely dependent on the circumstances. A lot of questions were racing around his head. Contingency theory. contingency planning and management 17 disaster recovery related activities instead. This comprehensive set of context factors facilitates the development of a more pronounced contingency theory of corporate planning. T2 - The contingency theory of "FIT" and IT implementation in small and medium enterprises. What worked once may not be successful when applied to a different situation. Sign up to join this community. (1989) who adapt the general contingency theory for MIS. Get Your Custom Essay on Contingency Theory of Leadership Just from $13,9/Page Get custom paper The employees are also rewarded incentives that relate directly to their goals and are aware of their job duties (Jones, 2007) and new procedures shared in our weekly meetings. In the 1960s, Fred Fiedler carried out research on the relationship (contingency) between the effectiveness of the leadership style. According to Henri Fayol, the functions of planning, organizing&comma. Use figures 6. Contingency Approach to Management - Recognition, Contributions and Limitations In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. Second, contingency theory has broadened our understanding of leadership by forcing us to consider the impact of situations on leaders. The contingency theory of corporate governance has two main arguments, which are (1) business environment and strategy determines corporate governance struc- ture;and(2)corporategovernance hastwo roles,whichareimprovingperformance and ensuring the quality of earnings by minimizing the likelihood of earnings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 736-750. Reduced contingency fuel procedure Here is a quick question if anyone can help. The two motivations discussed in Fielder's theory. Modern Organization Theory - Contingency Theory In the study of the Modern Organizational Theory, we talk about Simple Theory as well as Contingency Theory. The Context of Contingency Theory. Contingency management (CM), the systematic reinforcement of desired behaviors and the withholding of reinforcement or punishment of undesired behaviors, is an effective strategy in the treatment of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. contingency will be paid to the rider. When Cousins Feud: Advancing Threat Appraisal and Contingency Theory in Situations That Question the Essential Identity of Activist Organizations This article reports on an experiment that applied the concepts of avowed and ascribed identities to situations where similar activist organizations clash. In Fiedler's contingency theory, the term ____ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers. Fiedler's Contingency Theory examines how much control a leader has over a situation in order to determine fit. However, in practice, the latter is. Read Critical Thinking On Contingency Theory and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. , dependent) on the structure fitting the organization's level of contingency factors. " william richard scott contingency theory tells us that an organization is most effective when it adapts and fits. These influences include motivating subordinates, budgeting scarce resources, and serving as a source of communication. Fiedler's approach departs from trait and behavioral models by asserting that group performance is contingent on the leader's psychological orientation and on three contextual variables: group atmosphere, task structure, and leader's power position. Contingency planning guide 6 This guide breaks contingency planning down into five main steps, shown in the diagram below. Multiple choice questions This activity contains 10 questions. An important question is what kind of change is warranted in light of what has been learned. Terms in this set (15) Contingency theory (Fiedler) its a leader-match theory which means it tries to match leaders to appropriate situations, its called contingency because it suggests that a leader's effectiveness depends on how well the leader's style fits the context. Intelligence Theory and Theories of International Relations: Shared world or separate worlds? Mark Phythian 5. When Cousins Feud: Advancing Threat Appraisal and Contingency Theory in Situations That Question the Essential Identity of Activist Organizations This article reports on an experiment that applied the concepts of avowed and ascribed identities to situations where similar activist organizations clash. Previous Next. HR Management Assignment Help, Explain the fiedlers contingency theory of leadership, Question 1: (a) What are the sources of power available to a leader? Explain Fully (b) Using Maslow's theory of needs, explain whether money is the only motivating factor Question 2: Explain the Fiedler's contingency theory of leadersh. Reciprocal Influence of Leader and. Contingency theory is an approach to the study of organizational behavior in which explanations are given as to how contingent factors such as technology, culture and the external environment influence the design and function of organizations. One may want to consider, for instance, how classical contingency arguments hold under more dynamic conditions that characterize contemporary organizations. A key employee leaving the team. for developing simple contingency management (CM) or reinforcement protocols for use in substance abuse treatment settings. Introduction to Situational Contingency Theory of Leadership: Neither the trait nor the behavioural approaches offered satisfactory explanations of leadership in organisations, causing the researchers to look for alternate theories. The report will address this by employing theories and frameworks related to strategic planning within an organization and assessing the constraints to strategy. ” Live questions are those that make sense within the contemporary theoretical framework. The Context of Contingency Theory. Contingency Theory of Leadership The most popular and extensively researched situational theory of leadership was first proposed by Fred Piedler during the 1960s. These particular 'situational' or 'contingency' models offer a framework or guide for being flexible and adaptable when leading. Contingency theory proposes that for learning to take place, a stimulus must provide the subject information about the likelihood that certain events will occur. The "coaching" style of leadership in the situational leadership model II is described as high on directing and high on supporting behaviors The general point of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership is that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which a leader works. Establish a contingency plan. Organizational behavior is a field of business or management studies that looks at the relationships between individuals and the factors that motivate them, both intrinsically and extrinsically. A contingent leader effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. Theory: Applications for Organization and Management 449. Theorists attempt to identify and measure the conditions under which things will likely occur. The contingency approach is a management theory which says that the contingency theory depends on the context of situation and that the most rigid style of approach is inefficient in the long run. However, in practice, the latter is. Specifically, there is more support for the theory's predictions about when low LPC leadership should be used, but the part about when high LPC leadership would be more effective received less support. Contingency theory Explain how contingency theory addresses the way that an organization’s design relates to its structure. Question : Describe how the contingency theory of management Describe how the contingency theory of management would help or hinder Brazilian officials with getting the country ready to host the Olympic games. Contingency Management (CM) may be used to increase engagement with other types of interventions, such as psychosocial treatment or medications. So, situational leadership theory says, effective leaders must change their behaviour according to the situation. Modern risk management practices also plan contingencies for. Important figures in the field of management and organizational studies, their collaboration produced important works including the award winning book "Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration" and a series of papers which advance an open systems. and the realities of physics and biology,. No preordained value consensus is needed. (Stanley Smith) Stevens 1906-1973 is best known in the social sciences for his work on levels of measurement. The main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt, given situational factors (often about follower behavior),. Circumstances might lead to peers and followers shunning a particular leader, and then seeing him or her in a different way later on. According to him, the effectiveness of the leadership style depends on the situation. Once you have identified the problem, devise a course of action to resolve the issue. " No single decision-making process fits every scenario. The contingency approach is effective only when a company has complete control over the roles and the behavior of its employees. Your story matters Citation Hackman, J. The "coaching" style of leadership in the situational leadership model II is described as high on directing and high on supporting behaviors The general point of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership is that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which a leader works. A question that determines if a contingency question is asked is called a "filter," "skip," or "branching" question. Contingency Theory of Leadership. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. Rather than hoping that everything will turn out OK or that "fate will be on your side", a planner should try to identify contingency events and be prepared with plans, strategies and approaches for avoiding, coping or even exploiting them. The main determinants of a contingency are related to the external and internal environment of an organisation. Employers should develop a natural disaster contingency plan. (1989) who adapt the general contingency theory for MIS. Abstract: Reviews recent experimental literature on reward contingency effects on. These strategies prepares the organization or the person for anything that could happen in future. Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership effectiveness was based on studies of a wide range of group effectiveness, and concentrated on the relationship between leadership and organizational performance. The five contingency theories are: Fiedler’s least-preferred co-worker (LPC) theory, Evans’s path-goal theory, Kerr and Jermier’s leadership substitutes theory, multiple-linkage models (leadership and group effectiveness), and Fiedler et al’s cognitive resources theory. Nicola, 3 36100 Vicenza, Italy Tel +39 0444 998703 – Fax +39 0444 998884 E-mail: pamela. Causal questions are exactly what they sound like – a question that tries to compare two or more phenomena and determine (or at least suggest) a. The Contingency theory is not concerned with having the leader adapt to a situation, rather the goal is to match the leader's style with a compatible situation (Gupta, 2009). D) power distance. Contingency theory, chaos theory and systems theory are popular management theories. Contingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively. R Richardson. The Contingency approach is a management theory that helps the manager to adopt the best management style is dependent on the context of the situation. Jan 31, 2015 - Explore davidsamson3511's board "Leadership - Contingency Theory" on Pinterest. Happy learning! This Project Management Knowledge Area is known as “Project Human Rescource Management” as described in the PMBOK® Guide 5th Edition (It is updated in PMBOK® Guide 6th Edition as “Project Resource Management” which reflects more closely what a Project Manager is required to manage — not only the human resource but also other. This style of leadership deals with finding the best match between a leader and a situation. Click again to collapse. While this may sound simplistic, assessing the contingencies on which decisions depend can be a very complex. The stasis theory is extremely beneficial for research, teamwork, and overall essay writing process. The International Journal of Risk and Contingency Management is a peer-reviewed journal where the editor and board are willing to hear the voices of researchers from all cultures and theoretical perspectives (not just the mainstream textbook variety). Brandl et al. Trait Theory, one of the first systemic approaches to study leadership, attempts to discover what innate qualities make a superior leader. In realization there is no particular correct type of leader but the effective leadership style is dependent upon the situation and their choice of theory, being people-oriented or task-oriented. Employers should develop a natural disaster contingency plan. These perspectives are Fiedler's contingency theory, path-goal theory, and the leadership substitutes theory. (NASDAQ:CLMT) Q1 2020 Results Earnings Conference Call May 07, 2020, 10:00 am ET Company Participants Joseph Caminiti. Perhaps the strongest and most direct support for contingency theory--Rescorla (1966, 1968). Specifically, there is more support for the theory’s predictions about when low LPC leadership should be used, but the part about when high LPC leadership would be more effective received less support. In finance, managers often attempt to identify and. Chapter 1: Nursing Leadership and Management MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Model was the third notable situational model of leadership to emerge. The earliest and one of the most influential contingency theories was developed by Frederick Fiedler (Fiedler, 1967). Return to top. Overall pattern of events in the environment is important. According to Fiedler, organizations attempting to achieve group effectiveness through leadership must assess the leader according to an underlying trait, assess the situation faced by the leader, and construct a proper match between the two. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. An organizational / leadership / decision making style that is effective in some situations, may be not successful in other situations. It's hard to plan for the unknown. Contingency Theory Contingency Theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Contingency managers give attention to both the situation and their own styles of management and ensure that both of them interact appropriately. According to the theory, a leader’s style is measured by a scale called Least Preferred Coworker scale (LPC). This style of management holds that no single style is better than others but that they are all valuable in different situations. Another developmental question of the Contingency Theory asks is how companies are organizationally structured. There are too many external and internal constraints that will alter what really is the best way to lead is in a given situation. Contingency Theories. Contingency theory and situational view. Tip: Click on each link to expand and view the content. As influence of some created wider impact, concept of leadership started taking shape. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. However, due to the large variances that exist in organisations across industries and cultures, much greater empirical evidence will need to be produced, with inconsistencies and ambiguities removed, before HRM scholars will unanimously agree as to one theory that constitutes SHRM. of behavior, like personal histories. You'll get full access to our interactive quizzes and transcripts and can find out how to use our videos to earn real college credit. , emergency response, crisis management, business and disaster. contingency and complexity in nature. Formative assessment and contingency in the regulation of learning processes. Since the 1960s, the guiding light for research has been the assumption that what makes a leader great depends on the situation. These characteristics come from researchers studying extraordinary people. About the Book Author Laura Capell is Managing Director of Sledge Ltd, one of the most successful events companies in London. Use figures 6. Situational Leadership Theory takes the maturity level of followers into account. In this contingency model, Fielder introduced a new scale, named as LPC which is an abbreviation of Least Preferred Coworker, to measure the leadership efficiency and effectiveness of a leader. Cost contingency is an amount that is included in a budget to represent uncertainty. organisations. In this regard, hypothesis from different studies is connected to this approach. In fact, some individuals question whether there is any real difference between the concepts. Unpredictability. Answer the following questions and then press 'Submit' to get your score. The contingency approach assumes that managerial behaviour is dependent on a wide variety of elements. The Gallery is experiencing an expansion that will serve the Miami area. Could the owner define the new position according to contingency theory in such a way that it would qualify one of the applicants more than the other? I don't think so. Contingency Theory of Leadership. A contingency theory of leadership is any theory which has the following functional form; that is, if: 1 A n earlie r versio of thi s pape wa give at the Considering then, the questions of logic and of measurement involved in a priori specification of the critical values, it is not surprising that the. The two contingency theories of leadership are: The Fiedler model Path -goal theory Fiedler model : Fiedler model Leadership styles are either task motivated or relationship motivated Least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire A high LPC score suggests that the leader has a human relations orientation A low LPC score indicates a task orientation. Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. At times, disciplinary measures or withholding of privileges may be taken when the client engages in an undesirable behavior. "Although he recognized the need to define the question at issue in a trial, Aristotle did not develop a theory to cover the various possibilities, nor did he use the term stasis. Contingency Theory: Some Suggested Directions. Contingency theory allows one to make analysis on a given situation and make a determination on the variables that influence a particular decision in which one is concerned. Brandl et al. C Baker March 16, 2019 at 12:34 am Reply. These influences include motivating subordinates, budgeting scarce resources, and serving as a source of communication. Contingency theory is grounded in research. Fiedler's Contingency Theory Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. The most typical problem with a functional organizational structure is however that communication within the company can be rather rigid, making the organization slow and inflexible. Contingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively. Master’s program Communication Studies. The study of management theory is important for which of the following reasons: Which approach to the study of organisational behaviour emphasises the formal structure, hierarchy of management, the technical requirements and the assumption of rational behaviour?. They studied variety of leaders and there are research findings on this model. Classical leadership. Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-2566-X. Contingency Planning refers to interim measures to recover IT services following an emergency or system disruption. Contingency theory is based on the assumption that no single leadership style is appropriate in all situations. The contingency theories of leadership express the need for the leader to adjust the behavior based on a rational understanding of the situation and assume a leadership style that is appropriate for the occasion. Circumstances might lead to peers and followers shunning a particular leader, and then seeing him or her in a different way later on. of behavior, like personal histories. Instead, they claimed that the most appropriate form is the…. For example, UPS shared their Trackpad technology with an animal. Learn Game Theory from Stanford University, The University of British Columbia. Contingency Theory Select The Correct Labels For The A, B, And C Positions In The Following Image, And Then Select The Words Or Phrases That Best Complete The Associated Sentence High Task-oriented Leader Relationship- Oriented Leader Low Stuation Very Favorable To Leader Stuation Internmediataly Stuation Very Favorable To Leader Unfavorable To Leader. Contingency Planning refers to interim measures to recover IT services following an emergency or system disruption. Before contingency theory was developed, leadership theories focused on whether there was a single, best type of leadership. The contingency approach to management emerged from the real life experience of managers who found that no single approach worked consistently in every situation. Management Question 1 This question requires narrating a situation in which a leader's style of leadership is criticized according to the model provided by Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership. Environment is outside the control of the. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory. The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. This comprehensive set of context factors facilitates the development of a more pronounced contingency theory of corporate planning. Registration. One approach to organizational behavior is the contingency approach. Organizational behavior is a field of business or management studies that looks at the relationships between individuals and the factors that motivate them, both intrinsically and extrinsically. Note that, for example, the table show that 20 Females have Black eyes and that 10 Males have Gray eyes. Contingency theory of leadership essay This soup is AMAZING! And so is the weather this week! Could spring finally be upon us?? It’s time to thaw, so I’ve moved my computer outside several days this week to soak up the sun and boost my vitamin D levels. The general point of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership is that the best style of leadership is determined by: A) the leader's personality. Cost contingency is an amount that is included in a budget to represent uncertainty. The Contingency Theory. Modern Organization Theory - Contingency Theory In the study of the Modern Organizational Theory, we talk about Simple Theory as well as Contingency Theory. – Test Bank Chapter 6 Motivation Test Bank Multiple Choice (25) Which of the following is not considered a process theory of motivation? Expectancy theory Equity theory Procedural justice theory *d. You know their names already: Julius Caesar, Charlemagne, Elizabeth I, Isaac Newton, Napoleon, Churchill. Causality and contingency in bureaucracy theory. Which of the following statements describes Fiedler's contingency theory? asked Aug 22, 2017 in Business by Yetis A) Leaders can influence followers in highly unfavorable situations. Example of Using a Contingency Table to Determine Probability. In realization there is no particular correct type of leader but the effective leadership style is dependent upon the situation and their choice of theory, being people-oriented or task-oriented. The situational theory argues the best style of leadership is contingent to the situation. Environment is outside the control of the. binski & Humphreys, 1990), contingency models necessar-ily become quite complex as research identiÞes increasing numbers of potential moderators. o Many approaches can be called contingency, but the most widely recognized is Fiedler's in 1964, 1967. Leadership and The Contingency Theory Leadership has always been discussed at length and the various theories compared for their strengths and weaknesses. It gets its name from the fact that the appropriate leadership style is contingent upon the situation the leader faces. Management principles developed during the classical period were simply not useful in dealing with many management situations and could not explain the. Before contingency theory was developed, leadership theories focused on whether there was a single, best type of leadership. Fiedler in the 1960s. " william richard scott contingency theory tells us that an organization is most effective when it adapts and fits. In order to succeed, we need to study the phenomenon of leadership [5]. Donaldson, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. What does situational theory of leadership emphasise?. Fiedler's Contingency Theory. This is done through the Least Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC) (Gupta, 2009). All I need is help with my question. Fiedler's Contingency Theory Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. Program Management Most organizations start by recruiting a contingency planning team that includes at least one representative from each department and every level of management down to the most entry-level positions. Contingency theorists disputed the assumption that a single form of organization is best in all circumstances. In any case, you should mark your calendar with contingency dates for your contract, along with how they are to be met. Some could say one of the strengths of contingency theory is its longevity Contingency theory has survived over the decades as a valid and reliable approach on how to achieve effective leadership because it is grounded in empirical research. There are a number of different sub-theories that fall under the general contingency umbrella. No preordained value consensus is needed. Some other parts of needed data for systems theory is provided by new classic school theorists, economical theorists and quantities models experts. Joan Woodward was a pioneer in organization theory, and in this episode we explore her seminal work Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice, originally published in 1965. Contingency Approach to Management - Recognition, Contributions and Limitations In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. This is the contingency approach. A contingency plan is sometimes referred to as "Plan B," because it can be also used as an alternative for action if expected results fail to materialize. Many times students are given assignments, research papers, and projects related to the contingency approach to management. Based on their defined contingency and MIS constructs we are interested in answering the following two questions: How does regulation influence the organization of MIS in terms of executive commitment, expert involvement, and the utilization of formalized IS design methods? (Q1). personality e. (1989) who adapt the general contingency theory for MIS. Contingency leadership theory undertakes that leadership characteristics are significantly dependent on contextual factors. Contingency Theory Select The Correct Labels For The A, B, And C Positions In The Following Image, And Then Select The Words Or Phrases That Best Complete The Associated Sentence High Task-oriented Leader Relationship- Oriented Leader Low Stuation Very Favorable To Leader Stuation Internmediataly Stuation Very Favorable To Leader Unfavorable To Leader. A core concept in contingency theory is fit. The Contingency is slow off the mark this Monday, but it’s not because federal and state appellate courts reduced their output due to COVID-19 last week. Vroom and P. PY - 2005/3/1. Contingency Theory of Leadership The most popular and extensively researched situational theory of leadership was first proposed by Fred Piedler during the 1960s. Fiedler’s theory proposes that a leader’s effectiveness hinges on how well his or her leadership style matches the current context and task. Similar to systems theory, contingency theory does not prescribe the application of certain management principles to any situation. Question 02: Describe at least three management theories which are necessary for the effective management of your company or organization. According to the theory, a leader's style is measured by a scale called Least Preferred Coworker scale (LPC). The autocratic and democratic styles or task-oriented and relationship-oriented styles which they described are extremes, whereas in practice the behaviour of most leaders will be somewhere between the two. Dimaggio and Powell’s new institutional theory or neo-institutionalism emerged in contrast to the traditional. But due to the mismanagement of the situation BP was thrust into the spotlight as the figurehead of bad environmental decisions with even worse solutions. The leadership situation is made up of three key variables:. In realization there is no particular correct type of leader but the effective leadership style is dependent upon the situation and their choice of theory, being people-oriented or task-oriented. The website is offline now, but due to a lot of interest in this list of theories we keep the original 2003/2004 collection. What Is Contingency Management? Contingency management (CM), often called motivational incentives, is a type of behavioral therapy rooted in the basis of operant conditioning. How to use contingency in a sentence. We address this question by developing a formal model of how firm performance depends on the process by which firms learn and use representations. Is leadership culture-bound. The Theory of Industrial Organization is the first primary text to treat the new industrial organization at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate level. This resource is ideal for exam revision, and also useful when trying to apply the lessons within the text. Other times, questions are asked only of those that engage in a certain activity. Contingency theory is a behavioural theory of based on being no best way to lead an organization. Learn more. E) motivational structure. could be written in the contingency language as. Is it the staff, the nature of the work, your lack of power or a combination of all three that is the problem. The fundamental value of the 'contingency theory' is that the contingency writers pioneered a new perspective for the role of management by combining earlier management thought rather than contradicting it. 2 Transformation versus Servant Leadership - Stone the perception that the concepts are rather similar. It gets its name from the fact that the appropriate leadership style is contingent upon the situation the leader faces. Contingency theory also asserts that managers must take into account all current situational aspects and effectively act on these aspects in managing situations at hand, hence making decisions that will definitely solve the problems. It’s vital to your business’s survival. validity of the rational/empirical root; the different. After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Normative Decision-Making Model of Leadership. The advocates of situational theories believe that leadership. Donaldson, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Use a day planning calendar, as there are a variety of formats on the. Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership effectiveness was based on studies of a wide range of group effectiveness, and concentrated on the relationship between leadership and organizational performance. Contingency Theory (Fiedler): Fiedler's theory is the earliest and most extensively researched. His contingency model contained the relationship between leadership style (human relations or task-direct) as measured by the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale, and the favorableness of the situation (leader-member relations, degree of task structure, and position power). The contingency approach is effective only when a company has complete control over the roles and the behavior of its employees. This is because there are many internal and external factors affecting the working of an organization. Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that says the effectiveness of a manager's leadership, decisions, and rules depends on the present situation. What worked once may not be successful when applied to a different situation. To determine if it's a good fit for a particular organization, consider how it works and the benefits it can offer a company. Organizational behavior is a field of business or management studies that looks at the relationships between individuals and the factors that motivate them, both intrinsically and extrinsically. AU - Khazanchi, Deepak. Establish a contingency plan. Contingency theory. The person who developed the contingency theory of management effectiveness Knowledge application - use your knowledge to answer questions about the name of the scale used in the theory and. , political, economic, social, technological). The Contingency is slow off the mark this Monday, but it’s not because federal and state appellate courts reduced their output due to COVID-19 last week. Which of the following describes Fiedler's contingency theory? Leaders must be placed in or matched to a situation that fits their leadership style. 1: find the net price of a computer that lists at $270 if a discount rate of 40% is offered. I want to reconfirm my answer. Contingency Theory Classical and neoclassical theorists viewed conflict as something to be avoided because it interfered with equilibrium. "Although he recognized the need to define the question at issue in a trial, Aristotle did not develop a theory to cover the various possibilities, nor did he use the term stasis. However, real estate is generally shown as "pending" in the real estate listing, rather than as having a contingency, if the buyer's only contingency clause is a financing contingency, an. Perhaps the strongest and most direct support for contingency theory--Rescorla (1966, 1968). This is the contingency approach. 4 "is the interdependence-of parts or variables" and how the partarektie to. In the sphere of image-production, contingency is inside of the digital image itself, posing questions of medium ontology that re-write Kracauer's thesis on the photographic foundation of film. They include: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, the Situational Leadership Theory, the Path-Goal Theory and the Decision-Making Theory. There are three main types of questions that a researcher can ask when writing a quantitative study. There are a number of different sub-theories that fall under the general contingency umbrella. Contingency, on the other hand, suggests that outcomes are contingent on specific events.